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Rolex 1987 TT Submariner "Tropical" Blue Dial - 16083 model w/Box
TOP
Rolex 1987 TT Submariner "Tropical" Blue Dial - 16083 model w/Box
AU$ 11,447
Seller
Austins Watches Inc.
188
US
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Offshore Chronograph
TOP
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Offshore Chronograph
AU$ 36,301
Seller
LUXE WARE (HK) LIMITED
65
HK
Zenith EL PRIMERO TOURBILLON
TOP
Zenith EL PRIMERO TOURBILLON
AU$ 52,807
Seller
ZEGG & CERLATI
47
MC
Patek Philippe Perpetual Calendar
TOP
Patek Philippe Perpetual Calendar
AU$ 60,000
Seller
Private Seller
 
AU
Urwerk UR-1001 Zeit Device
Urwerk UR-1001 Zeit Device
AU$ 565,000
Seller
SWISS TIME MACHINE
AU
IWC Portuguese Chronograph
TOP
IWC Portuguese Chronograph
AU$ 7,000
Seller
Private Seller
 
AU
Panerai Luminor 1950 3 Days GMT Automatic
TOP
Panerai Luminor 1950 3 Days GMT Automatic
AU$ 8,100
Seller
Private Seller
 
AU
Montblanc Timewalker best looking watch at great price
Montblanc Timewalker best looking watch at great price
AU$ 1,000
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Patek Philippe Calatrava Officers Watch 5053G
TOP
Patek Philippe Calatrava Officers Watch 5053G
AU$ 24,899
Seller
Private Seller
 
AU
IWC Pilot's Watch  Flieger Chronograph Ceramic / English...
TOP
IWC Pilot's Watch Flieger Chronograph Ceramic / English...
AU$ 22,500
Seller
Private Seller
 
AU
TAG Heuer Silverstone
TOP
TAG Heuer Silverstone
AU$ 5,500
Seller
Private Seller
 
AU
Longines Legend Diver
Longines Legend Diver
AU$ 1,650
Seller
Private Seller
AU
IWC Portuguese Chronograph
TOP
IWC Portuguese Chronograph
AU$ 10,499
Seller
Private Seller
 
AU
Bell & Ross BR03-94-S-07851
TOP
Bell & Ross BR03-94-S-07851
AU$ 4,200
Seller
Private Seller
 
AU
Breitling Chronoliner Yachting
TOP
Breitling Chronoliner Yachting
AU$ 3,699
Seller
Private Seller
 
AU
Omega Seamaster Aqua Terra, 36mm, 2504.50
Omega Seamaster Aqua Terra, 36mm, 2504.50
AU$ 2,233
Seller
Private Seller
AU
IWC Portuguese Chronograph
TOP
IWC Portuguese Chronograph
AU$ 7,237
Seller
Private Seller
 
AU
Breguet SECRET DE LA REINE
TOP
Breguet SECRET DE LA REINE
AU$ 139,759
Seller
ZEGG & CERLATI
47
MC
Sinn 556A (with Steel Bracelet & Leather Strap)
Sinn 556A (with Steel Bracelet & Leather Strap)
AU$ 1,100
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Omega Seamaster Aqua Terra
TOP
Omega Seamaster Aqua Terra
AU$ 9,778
Seller
Private Seller
 
AU
Panerai Luminor Submersible 1950 3 Days Automatic
Panerai Luminor Submersible 1950 3 Days Automatic
AU$ 9,200
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Steinhart Nav B-Chrono II
Steinhart Nav B-Chrono II
AU$ 999
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Tudor Black Bay 36
Tudor Black Bay 36
AU$ 2,890
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Rolex Oyster Perpetual Date
Rolex Oyster Perpetual Date
AU$ 3,750
Seller
Private Seller
AU
TAG Heuer Aquaracer Calibre 5 500M
TAG Heuer Aquaracer Calibre 5 500M
AU$ 1,600
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Oris Royal Flying Doctor Service Limited Edition
Oris Royal Flying Doctor Service Limited Edition
AU$ 1,888
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Seiko SARB033
Seiko SARB033
AU$ 650
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Fortis Flieger Classic - 595.11.41 L
Fortis Flieger Classic - 595.11.41 L
AU$ 599
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Rolex Day-Date
Rolex Day-Date
AU$ 24,900
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Frederique Constant Vintage Rally
Frederique Constant Vintage Rally
AU$ 3,050
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Omega Seamaster
Omega Seamaster
AU$ 1,100
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Tissot PRC 200 44mm 0554271605700
Tissot PRC 200 44mm 0554271605700
AU$ 575
Seller
Private Seller
AU
IWC Big Pilot Top Gun
IWC Big Pilot Top Gun
AU$ 11,800
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Victorinox Swiss Army Dive Master 500 Black Ice ref. 241425...
Victorinox Swiss Army Dive Master 500 Black Ice ref. 241425...
AU$ 1,249
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Tudor Pelagos LHD
Tudor Pelagos LHD
AU$ 5,337
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Panerai Luminor Submersible
Panerai Luminor Submersible
AU$ 7,500
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Rolex Sea-Dweller Deepsea
Rolex Sea-Dweller Deepsea
AU$ 17,999
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Oris Aquis Depth Gauge
Oris Aquis Depth Gauge
AU$ 2,750
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Chronoswiss Opus
Chronoswiss Opus
AU$ 11,990
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Rolex 326934
Rolex 326934
AU$ 25,701
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Tudor Heritage Ranger
Tudor Heritage Ranger
AU$ 2,800
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Girard Perregaux 1940's
Girard Perregaux 1940's
AU$ 620
Seller
Tick Tock Vintage Watches
AU
Rolex Sea-Dweller
Rolex Sea-Dweller
AU$ 19,790
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Tudor Black Bay 36
Tudor Black Bay 36
AU$ 2,799
Seller
Private Seller
 
AU
TAG Heuer Monaco 24 (Calibre 36)
TAG Heuer Monaco 24 (Calibre 36)
AU$ 12,300
Seller
Private Seller
AU
De Grisogono UNO GS N08 Or 18 KT. Bruni
TOP
De Grisogono UNO GS N08 Or 18 KT. Bruni
AU$ 13,915
Seller
Bijouterie-Horlogerie Langel
47
CH
Alpina Startimer Pilot Automatic
Alpina Startimer Pilot Automatic
AU$ 950
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Rolex Datejust
Rolex Datejust
AU$ 13,000
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Breguet Type XX - XXI - XXII
Breguet Type XX - XXI - XXII
AU$ 8,750
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Raymond Weil Freelancer 7731-STC-20021
Raymond Weil Freelancer 7731-STC-20021
AU$ 1,995
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Omega SEAMASTER
Omega SEAMASTER
AU$ 1,250
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Omega Seamaster Diver 300 M
Omega Seamaster Diver 300 M
AU$ 3,694
Seller
Private Seller
 
AU
Rolex Submariner (No Date)
Rolex Submariner (No Date)
AU$ 10,199
Seller
Private Seller
 
AU
Omega Automatic 18CT GOLD De Ville
Omega Automatic 18CT GOLD De Ville
AU$ 1,500
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Bell & Ross BR01-97 LE Orange 1 of 250
Bell & Ross BR01-97 LE Orange 1 of 250
AU$ 5,595
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Panerai Luminor 1950 8 Days Automatic
Panerai Luminor 1950 8 Days Automatic
AU$ 11,500
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Montblanc Timewalker Hemispheres
Montblanc Timewalker Hemispheres
AU$ 2,990
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Rolex Sky-Dweller
TOP
Rolex Sky-Dweller
AU$ 21,000
Seller
Private Seller
UK
Bulova 1970's vintage, Swiss Made, Automatic, Day Date,...
Bulova 1970's vintage, Swiss Made, Automatic, Day Date,...
AU$ 1,117
Seller
Private Seller
AU
IWC Portofino Chronograph
IWC Portofino Chronograph
AU$ 5,750
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Hamilton Intra-Matic
Hamilton Intra-Matic
AU$ 746
Seller
Private Seller
AU
Hublot Big Bang Caviar - All Black
TOP
Hublot Big Bang Caviar - All Black
AU$ 8,188
Seller
Private Seller
AU
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Automatic Watches: Self-Winding Mechanical Timepieces

Automatic watches are powered by the natural motion of your wrist while you wear them. This type of watch has a rich history reaching back to the 18th century. Today, countless brands produce their own automatic calibers for their watches.

Highlights

  • Automatically wound by the natural movements of your arm
  • Environmentally-friendly: No batteries to produce or throw away
  • The Rolex Oyster Perpetual is one of the most famous automatic watches
  • John Harwood is considered the inventor of the automatic wristwatch
  • Automatic watches available in almost every price range

Automatic Watches: Self-Winding Timepieces

Automatic watches fall under the larger umbrella term of mechanical watches. They offer a key advantage over manual timepieces: They wind automatically via the movement of the wearer's arm. An oscillating mass inside the caliber is responsible for winding the spring. Today, this is in most cases a winding rotor. It is flexibly mounted so that gravity pulls it towards the center. When you're wearing the watch and move your wrist, the rotor moves and gives the caliber new energy. Automatic watches don't require batteries, making mechanical watches comparably more environmentally friendly than battery-powered quartz watches.
Automatic watches are available from almost every famous watch manufacturer in all price ranges. Less expensive models are often powered by base calibers made by the ébauche manufacturers ETA, Soprod, or Sellita. Various manufacturers use these calibers in a more or less reworked form in their watches. These calibers even power the watches made by famous brands such as Breitling and TAG Heuer. However, both manufacturers have developed their own in-house movements as well.
Rolex and Patek Philippe are some of the most well-known watch manufacturers. Unlike many other brands, these two Geneva-based manufacturers don't outsource base calibers. Instead, they use their own. For example, Rolex's caliber 3130 is considered very robust, reliable, and precise. These qualities and more make the caliber one of the best automatic movements on the market; it powers Rolex watches such as the Submariner. Since Rolex produces their watches almost entirely in-house, production is costlier. This results in higher prices for automatic watches with in-house movements.

Buying Tips

If you're searching for an automatic watch, the hard part is actually choosing one. Should it be large or small, simple or extravagant, affordable or expensive? The selection is ample for every taste and budget. Pre-owned automatic watches from Citizen, Seiko, or Swatch are available for around 50 euros. These watches often only have three hands for the hours, minutes, and seconds. Some also have a date or even day/date display.
In the price range between 100 and 200 euros, you can find diverse new automatic watches from brands like Seiko or Fossil. Pre-owned watches from long-established manufacturers such as Tissot, Hamilton, or Longines cost up to 500 euros. The situation is similar in the 1,000 euros and under price range, though here you can also find new models from the German brand Marcello C.
In the 1,000 euro price range, you can find pre-owned Omega or Breitling watches. New automatic three-hand watches are available from Oris, Raymond Weil, or Rado.
However, if you're looking for an automatic chronograph, you need to adjust your budget accordingly. A pre-owned automatic chronograph costs at least 500 euros; this applies to watches from brands such as Tissot or Hamilton. New chronographs cost a few hundred euros more, around 800 euros. These watches are often powered by ETA's Valjoux 7750, which is considered one of the most successful automatic chronograph calibers in the world.
If you're searching for a new automatic Rolex, you need to plan on spending at least 3,000 euros. You can purchase the introductory model, Oyster Perpetual, for this price. You can occasionally find pre-owned vintage watches from this Genevan manufacturer for less than 1,000 euros. The Submariner, one of the first and most famous diving watches in the world, is available pre-owned for around 4,100 euros. New, it costs around 5,600 euros. Rolex's chronograph, the Daytona, is available for around 7,500 euros.
The most expensive automatic watches are from brands such as Audemars Piguet and Patek Philippe. These watches are often made of platinum or 18-karat gold and feature countless diamonds on their dial and/or case. At times, these watches are also incredibly expensive as they're rare vintage watches coveted by collectors. Prices over 1 million euros are not too rare when it comes to these watches.

The Technology Behind Automatic Watches

The mainspring of an automatic watch is, as the name suggests, automatically wound by the movement itself. The mainspring is wound, becomes tense, and stores energy. This happens through the natural movements of the wearer's arm when the watch is on his or her wrist. This mechanism eliminates the need to manually wind the mainspring. Instead, an oscillating mass - often the rotor - winds the mainspring. Gravity causes the flexibly mounted rotor to move towards the center and a gear-train transfers the energy from the rotor's movement to the barrel. Viewed from a physics standpoint, the mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy.
There are automatic movements that wind in one or both directions. Bi-directional winding movements have so-called reverser gears. These ensure that the rotor winds the barrel in both directions. Uni-directional winding movements actually wind bidirectionally, but the mainspring is only wound in one direction. Both variants have a reduction gear which converts the fast movements of the rotor into slower movements with more torque. The end of the mainspring is not directly connected to the barrel so that it doesn't snap off when it's fully wound. The outer end of the spring is outfitted with a bridle, which keeps the pressure on the mainspring's outermost coil. When not fully wound, that pressure allows the outer end of the mainspring to be caught in a notch in the barrel wall. Once the spring is fully wound, it moves along to the next notch.
Automatic watches have many advantages: They're comfortable, environmentally-friendly, and usually more precise. This improved precision is due to the mainspring, which is always tense and has a more constant torque than mainsprings in hand-wound calibers. This has a positive effect on the amplitude. The amplitude is the balance wheel's degree of rotation and refers to the wheel's maximum rotation angle between equilibrium and a reversal point.

Technical Details of Automatic Watches

  • The winding rotor winds the mainspring in the barrel
  • Advantages: no manual winding required, environmentally-friendly, more precise
  • Uni-directional and bi-directional winding movements

The Origins of Automatic Watches

Automatic winding is one of the most important and long-lasting innovations in the history of watchmaking and the mechanism is one of the most widespread complications in use today.
Today's automatic watches can trace their origin back to the year 1729. Abraham-Louis Perrelet improved the winding mechanism of pocket watches in the 18th century. A small key was required to wind a movement before this improvement. Since the key was never there when you needed it, winding mechanisms that didn't require a key were in high demand. Perrelet wanted to invent a self-winding pocket watch. In 1770, he introduced his pedometer watch after countless attempts. The watch had an oscillating weight which teetered back and forth as the wearer walked. The motion caused the oscillating weight to tense the mainspring. Perrelet also developed a caliber with a winding rotor which swiveled above the movement. With these innovations, the groundwork for today's automatic watches was laid.
Refined men carried their pocket watches tucked away safely in their jacket, vest, or pants. The timepieces barely moved while in their pockets, which meant that the oscillating mass didn't have enough energy to wind the mainspring. The crown-wind method solved the key-wind problem in the mid-19th century, making the automatic pocket watch superfluous.

The First Automatic Wristwatches

The French watchmaker Léon Leroy was also a pioneer in the development of automatic watches. He presented his first automatic wristwatch in 1922. Some of these watches even had a date display. However, Leroy was far away from being able to mass produce a series.
The British watchmaker John Harwood lead automatic wristwatches to series production. He began working on automatic movements in 1922. Two years later, he patented his work, paving the way for the first series-produced automatic wristwatches.
Rolex's Oyster Perpetual was one of the first automatic wristwatches. Rolex introduced the watch to the market in 1931. It's one of the few early models that has lasted over the years and is still produced today. The principle behind Oyster Perpetual's winding rotor is at the heart of every modern automatic wristwatch.

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